drm document security copy protection
drm
Reptiles of the United States  
  Home Email Site map
A Guide to the Reptiles &
Amphibians of the United States
U.S. Reptile Guide snakes lizards Turtles turtles salamanders Alligators of the US
Snakes of the U.S.

 

Colubrids of the United States


The majority of the world's snake belong to the family Colubridae. There is so much diversification of structure within this family that it has been divided into groups known as subfamilies. Most of the colubrids, as the snakes of this family are called, are the typical harmless snakes that predominate in every continent except Australia. 

A colubrid (from Latin coluber, snake) is a snake that is a member of the Colubridae family. It is a broad classification of snakes that includes well over half of all snake species on earth. Colubrid species are found on every continent, except Antarctica. 

A colubrid's body is almost completely covered in scales. They have highly flexible jaws, allowing them to consume large prey items, and have no remnant of a pelvic girdle. 

While most colubrids are non-venomous (or have venom that isn't known to be harmful to humans) and are normally harmless, a few groups, such as genus Boiga, can produce medically significant bites, while the boomslang and the twig snakes have caused human fatalities. The venom is a modified form of saliva, secreted by glands in the upper jaw. 

The venom-injecting fangs of colubrids are termed opisthoglyphous, meaning that the small, grooved fangs are located in the back of the upper jaw, unlike those of vipers and elapids, which are located in the front. Even non-venomous colubrids often have fangs in this position, and use them to puncture egg-shells or similar food.

 

Glossy Snakes (Arizona elegans)

This includes the following subspecies of the Glossy Snake: Kansas Glossy Snake, Texas Glossy Snake, & the Desert Glossy Snake.

Western Glossy Snakes (Arizona occidentalis)

This includes the following subspecies of the Western Glossy Snake: California Glossy Snake, Mojave Glossy Snake, Arizona Glossy Snake, & the Painted Glossy Snake

Baja California Rat Snake (Bogertophis rosaliae)

Extreme southern California (Imperial County) southward along the peninsular ranges to the cape of Baja California. Also found on Isla San Marcos, as well as other small miscellaneous islands in the Sea of Cortez.

Trans Pecos Rat Snake (Bogertophis subocularis)

In North America, Bogertophis subocularis is concentrated in the Southwest; in southern New Mexico, West Texas, and Northern Mexico.

Worm Snake (Carphophis amoenus)

short bio

Western Worm Snake (Carphophis vermis)

short bio

Scarlet Snakes (Cemophora coccinea)

This includes the following subspecies of Scarlet Snake: Florida Scarlet Snake, Texas Scarlet Snake & the Northern Scarlet Snake

Variable Sand Snake (Chilomeniscus stramineus)

short bio

Western Shovel-Nose Snakes (Chionactis occipitalis)

This includes the following subspecies of the Western Shovel-Nose Snake: Mojave Shovel-Nose Snake, Colorado Shovel-Nose Snake, & the Tuscon Shovel-Nose Snake

Sonoran Shovel-Nose Snakes (Chionactis palarostris)

This includes the following subspecies of the Sonoran Shovel-Nose Snake: Sonoran Shovel-Nose Snake and the Organ Pipe Shovel-Nose Snake

Kirtland's Snake (Clonophis kirtlandii)

short bio

Racer Snakes (Coluber constrictor)

This includes the following subspecies of Racers: Northern Black Racer, Blue Racer, Southern Black Racer, Eastern Yellow Bellied Racer, Buttermilk Racer, Tan Racer, Brown Chin Racer, Black Mask Racer, Western Yellow-Bellied Racer, Mexican Racer, and the Everglades Racer.

Black-Striped Snakes (Coniophanes imperialis)

This includes the following subspecies of Black-Striped Snakes: Regal Black-Striped Snake and the Tamaulipan Black-Striped Snake

Sharp Tailed Snake (Contia tenius)

short bio

Ringneck Snakes (Diadophis punctatus)

This includes the following subspecies of the Ringneck Snake: Prairie Ringneck Snake, Mississippi Ringneck Snake, Northern Ringneck Snake, Key Ringneck Snake, Pacific Ringneck Snake, San Bernardino Ringneck Snake, Northwestern Ringneck Snake, Coral-Bellied Ringneck Snake, Regal Ringneck Snake, San Diego Ringneck Snake, and the Monterey Ringneck Snake.

Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon corais)

This includes the following subspecies of the Indigo Snake: Eastern Indigo, Texas Indigo, and the Western Indigo

Northern Speckled Racer (Drymobius margaritiferus margaritiferus)

Found only in extreme southern Texas.

Rat Snakes (Elaphe obsoleta)*

This includes the following subspecies of Rat Snake: Yellow Rat Snake, Black Rat Snake, Grey Rat Snake, Baird's Rat Snake, Texas Rat Snake, and the Everglades Rat Snake

Corn Snakes (Elaphe guttata)*

This includes the following subspecies of Rat Snake: Corn Snake and Great Plains Rat Snake

Eastern Fox Snakes (Elaphe gloydi)*

Bio

Western Fox Snake (Elaphe vulpina)*

Bio

Mud Snakes (Farancia abacura)

This includes the following subspecies of the Mud Snake: Eastern Mud Snake and the Western Mud Snake

Rainbow Snakes (Farancia erytogramma )

This includes the following subspecies of the Rainbow Snake: Northern Rainbow Snake and the Southern Rainbow Snake.

Mexican (Tamaulipan) Hook-Nose Snake (Ficimia streckeri)

short bio

Western (Chihuahuan) Hook-Nose Snake (Gyalopion canum)

short bio

Desert (Thornscrub) Hook-Nose Snake (Gyalopion quadrangulare)

short bio

Eastern Hognose Snake (Heterodon platyrhinos)

short bio

Southern Hognose Snake (Latin name)

short bio

Western Hognose Snake (Latin name)

This includes the following subspecies of the Western Hognose Snake: Plains Hognose Snake and the Dusty Hognose Snake

Night Snakes (Hypsiglena torquata)

This includes the following subspecies of the Night Snake: Texas Night Snake, Spotted Night Snake, Desert Night Snake, San Diego Night Snake, Mesa Verde Night Snake,

Mole Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis calligaster)

This includes the following subspecies of the Mole Kingsnake: Prairie Kingsnake, Mole Kingsnake, and the South Florida Mole Kingsnake

Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula)

This includes the following subspecies of the Kingsnake: Eastern Kingsnake, Banded Baja Kingsnake, Baja Kingsnake, Blotched Kingsnake, California Kingsnake, Desert Kingsnake, Florida Kingsnake, Mexican Kingsnake, Outer Banks Kingsnake, Southern Florida Kingsnake, Speckled Kingsnake, and the Yuma Kingsnake

Milksnakes (Lampropeltis triangulum)

This includes the following subspecies of the Milksnake: Atlantic Central American Milksnake, Black Milksnake, Blanchard's Milksnake, Central Plains Milksnake, Conant's Milksnake, Dixon's Milksnake, Eastern Milksnake, Ecuadorian Milksnake, Honduran Milksnake, Jalisco Milksnake, Louisiana Milksnake, Mexican Milksnake, Nelson's Milksnake, New Mexico Milksnake, Pacific Central American Milksnake, Pale Milksnake, Pueblan Milksnake, Red Milksnake, Scarlet Milksnake, Sinaloan Milksnake, Smith's Milksnake, and the Stuart's Milksnake.

Mountain Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis zonata)

This includes the following subspecies of the Mountain Kingsnake: California (St. Helena) Mountain Kingsnake, San Diego Mountain Kingsnake, Seirra Mountain Kingsnake, Baja (or San Pedro)Mountain Kingsnake, Todos Santos Island Mountain Kingsnake, Coastal Mountain Kingsnake, and the San Bernardino Mountain Kingsnake.

Sonora Mountain Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis pyromelana )

This includes the following subspecies of the Sonoran Mountain Kingsnake: Arizona Mountain Kingsnake, Huachuca Mountain Kingsnake, and the Utah Mountain Kingsnake.

Gray Band Kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna)

This includes the following subspecies of the Greyband Kingsnake: Blair's Kingsnake and the Grey Band Kingsnake.

Mexican Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis mexicana)

This includes the following subspecies of the Mexican Kingsnake: St. Louis Potosi Kingsnake, Durango Mountain Kingsnake, and the Thayeri (or Nuevo Leon or Variable)Kingsnake

Northern Cat-Eyed Snake (Leptodeira septntrionalis septntrionalis)

short bio

Sonoran Whipsnake (Masticophis bilineatus)

This includes the following subspecies of the Sonoran Whipsnake: Ajo Mountain Whipsnake and the Sonoran Whipsnake

Coachwhip Snakes (Masticophis flagellum )

This includes the following subspecies of the Coachwhip Snake: Eastern Coachwhip, Western Coachwhip, Red (Racer) Coachwhip, Sonora Coachwhip, Baja California Coachwhip, Lined Coachwhip, and the San Joaquin Coachwhip.

Striped Racers (Masticophis laterdis)

This includes the following subspecies of the Striped Racer: California Striped Racer, Alameda Striped Racer, and the Desert Striped Racer.

Striped Whipsnakes (Masticophis taeniatus )

This includes the following subspecies of the Striped Whipsnake: Desert Striped Whipsnake, Central Texas Whipsnake, and the Ornate Whipsnake

Schott's Whipsnakes (Masticophis schotti )

This includes the following subspecies of the Striped Whipsnake: Ruthven's Whipsnake, and the Schott's Whipsnake

Southern Water Snakes (Nerodia fasciata)

This includes the following subspecies of the Banded Water Snake: Banded Water Snake, Florida Banded Water Snake, Broad Band Water Snake, Gulf Salt Marsh Water Snake, Atlantic Salt Marsh Water Snake, and the Mangrove Water Snake.

Plain-Bellied Water Snakes (Nerodia eryrthrogaster )

This incudes the following subspecies of the Plain-Bellied Water Snake: Copper-bellied Water Snake, Yellow-Bellied Water Snake, Blotched Water Snake, and the Red-Bellied Water Snake.

Green Water Snake (Nerodia cyclopion)

short bio

Brazos Water Snake (Nerodia harteri harteri)

short bio

Brown Water Snake (Nerodia taxispilota)

short bio

Diamondback Water Snake (Nerodia rhombifer)

short bio

Concho Water Snake (Nerodia paucimaculata)

short bio

Northern Water Snakes (Nerodia sipedon )

This includes the following subspecies of the Northern Water Snake: Midland Water Snake, Lake Erie Water Snake, Carolina Water Snake, and the Northern Water Snake.

Rough Green Snakes (Ospheodrys aestivus)

This includes the following subspecies of the Rough Green Snake: Northern Rough Green Snake and the Florida Rough Green Snake.

Smooth Green Snakes (Ospheodrys vernalis )

This includes the following subspecies of the Smooth Green Snake: Eastern Smooth Green Snake and the Western Smooth Green Snake.

Mexican Vine Snake (Oxybelis aeneus)

Found only in extreme southern Arizona.

Saddle Leaf-Nosed Snake (Phyllorhynchus browni)

No subspecies are recognized.

Spotted Leaf-Nosed Snake (Phyllorhynchus decurtatus)

No subspecies are recognized.

Gopher Snakes (Pituophis cantenifer )

This includes the following subspecies of the Gopher Snake: Baja Gopher Snake, Bullsnake, Pacific Gopher Snake, San Diego Gopher Snake, Sonoran Gopher Snake, and the Great Basin Gopher Snake.

Louisiana Pine Snakes (Pituophis ruthveni)

This includes the following subspecies of the Pine Snake: Northern Pine Snake, Black Pine Snake, Louisiana Pine Snake, and the Florida Pine Snake.

Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus)

This includes the following subspecies of the Pine Snake: Northern Pine Snake, Black Pine Snake, Louisiana Pine Snake, and the Florida Pine Snake.

Mexican Pine Snakes (Pituophis deppei)

This includes the following subspecies of the Mexican Pine Snake: Northern Mexican Pine Snake and the Mexican Pine Snake

Pine Wood Snake (Rhadinaea flavilata)

short bio

Western Long-Nose Snake (Rhinocheilus lecontei lecontei)

short bio

Eastern Patchnose Snakes (Salvadora grahamiae)

This includes the following subspecies of the Eastern Patchnose Snake: Texas Patch-nose Snake and the Mountain Patchnose Snake

Western Patchnose Snakes (Salvadora hexalepis)

This includes the following subspecies of the Western Patchnose Snake: Desert Patch-nose Snake, Coast Patch-nose Snake, and the Mojave Patch-nose Snake.

Big Bend Patchnose Snake (Salvadora deserticola)

short bio

Swamp Snakes (Seminatrix pygaea)

This includes the following subspecies of the Swamp Snake: Northern Florida Swamp Snake, Southern Florida Swamp Snake, and the North Carolina Swamp Snake

Northern Green Rat Snake (Senticolis triaspis intermedia)

short bio

Ground Snake (Sonora semiannulata)

short bio

Short-Tailed Snake (Stilosoma extenuatum)

short bio

Brown Snakes (Storeira dekayi)

This includes the following subspecies of the Brown Snake: Northern Brown Snake, Midland Brown Snake, Marsh Brown Snake, and the Texas Brown Snake

Red-Bellied Snakes (Storeria occipitomaculata )

This includes the following subspecies ofthe Red-Bellied Snake: Northern Red-Bellied Snake, Black Hills Red-Bellied Snake, and the Florida Red-Bellied Snake.

Florida Brown Snake (Storeria victa)

short bio

Mexican Blackhead Snake (Tantilla atriceps)

short bio

Southeastern Crowned Snake (Tantilla coronata)

short bio

Flat-Headed Snake (Tantilla gracilis)

short bio

Southwestern (or Smith's) Blackhead Snake (Tantilla hobartsmithi)

short bio

Trans-Pecos Blackhead Snake (Tantilla cucullata)

short bio

Plains Blackhead Snakes (Tantilla nigriceps)

This includes the following subspecies of the PLains Blackhead Snake: Texas Blackhead Snake and the Plains Blackhead Snake

Chihuahuan Blackhead Snake (Tantilla wilcoxi wilcoxi)

short bio

Western Blackhead Snakes (Tantilla planiceps)

This includes the following subspecies of the Western Blackhead Snake: California Blackhead Snake and the Desert Blackhead Snake

Yaqui Blackhead Snake (Tantilla yaquia)

short bio

Central Florida Crowned Snakes (Tantilla relicta)

This includes the following subspecies of the Central Florida Crowned Snake: Peninsula Crowned Snake, Central Florida Crowned Snake, and the Coastal Dunes Crowned Snake.

Southern Blackhead Snakes (Tantilla rubra)

This includes the following subspecies of the Southern Blackhead Snake: Devil's River Blackhead Snake and the Blackwood Blackhead Snake.

Short-Headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis brachystoma)

short bio

Butler's Garter Snake (Thamnophis butleri)

short bio

Sierra Aquatic Garter Snake (Thamnophis couchii couchii)

short bio

Aquatic Garter Snake (Thamnophis aquaticus)

short bio

Two Stripe Aquatic Garter Snake (Thamnophis hammondii)

short bio

Giant Aquatic Garter Snake (Thamnophis gigas)

short bio

Blackneck Garter Snakes (Thamnophis cyrtopsis)

This includes the following subspecies of the Blackneck Garter Snake: Eastern Blackneck Garter Snake and the Western Blackneck Garter Snake.

Western Garter Snakes (Thamnophis elegans)

This includes the following subspecies of the Western Garter Snake: Mountain Garter Snake, Coast Garter Snake, Wandering Garter Snake, Klamath Garter Snake, Upper Basin Garter Snake, and the Arizona Wandering Garter Snake.

Mexican Garter Snakes (Thamnophis eques)

This includes the following subspecies of the Mexican Garter Snake: Northern Mexican Garter Snake and the Mexican Garter Snake.

Guatemala Garter Snake (Thamnophis fulvus)

short bio

Marcy's Checkered Garter Snake (Thamnophis marciannus marciannus)

short bio

Northwest Garter Snake (Thamnophis ordinoides)

short bio

Striped Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis proximus )

This includes the following subspecies of the Striped Ribbon Snake: Orange-Striped Ribbon Snake, Arid Land Ribbon Snake, Gulf Coast Ribbon Snake, and the Red Stripe Ribbon Snake.

Plains Garter Snakes (Thamnophis radix)

This includes the following subspecies of the Plains Garter Snake: Eastern Plains Garter Snake and the Western Plains Garter Snake.

Narrow-Headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus)

short bio

Eastern Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis sauritus)

This includes the following subspecies of the Eastern Ribbon Snake: Blue Striped Ribbon Snake, Peninsula Ribbon Snake, Northern Ribbon Snake, and the Eastern Ribbon Snake.

Eastern Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis )

This includes the following subspecies of the Eastern Garter Snake: Blue Stripe Garter Snake, San Francisco Garter Snake , Chicago Garter Snake, Eastern Garter Snake, Red Barred (or Valley) Garter Snake, Red Sided Garter Snake, Red Spotted Garter Snake, California Red Stripe Garter Snake. Texas Garter Snake, New Mexico Garter Snake, Maritime Garter Snake, and the Puget Sound Garter Snake.

Northwestern Aquatic Garter Snakes (Thamnophis atratus )

This includes the following subspecies of the Northwestern Aquatic Garter Snake: Santa Cruz Aquatic Garter Snake, Oregon Aquatic Garter Snake, and the Diablo Range Garter Snake.

Lyre Snakes (Trimorphodon biscutatus )

This includes the following subspecies of the Lyre Snake: Sonoran Lyre Snake, California Lyre Snake, and the Texas Lyre Snake.

Northern Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum)

short bio

Central Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion annectems)

short bio

New Mexico Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion mertensi)

short bio

Texas Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion texanum)

short bio

Rough Earth Snake (Virginia striatula)

short bio

Smooth Earth Snakes (Virginia valeriae)

This includes the following subspecies of the Smooth Earth Snake: Western Smooth Earth Snake, Eastern Smooth Earth Snake, and the Mountain Smooth Earth Snake.

* The classification of Elaphe to Pantherophis, Mintonius, and Scotophis are all alternatives still being considered. Herpedia will continue to use Elaphe until such a time as the authorities can make a united decision

 
 

Ad Space for Sale

Buy this ad space for only $9.95 for 3 months! This includes upto 175 characters in content and a link to your site. Banner ads are also welcome but are limited to 125 x 125 pixels
 

 
 
 

Ad Space for Sale

Buy this ad space for only $9.95 for 3 months! This includes upto 175 characters in content and a link to your site. Banner ads are also welcome but are limited to 125 x 125 pixels
 

 
 
 

Ad Space for Sale

Buy this ad space for only $9.95 for 3 months! This includes upto 175 characters in content and a link to your site. Banner ads are also welcome but are limited to 125 x 125 pixels
 

 
 
 

 

 

 

Recommended Snake Books at Amazon.com


       

 

 

copyright