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Reptiles of the United States  
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A Guide to the Reptiles &
Amphibians of the United States
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Lungless Salamanders of the United States

The largest family of salamanders, it is believed to have originated in eastern North America. There are 23 genera and about 215 species, 80 of which occur in North America.

Species of the genera Plethodon and Batrachoseps are long and slender, while Pseudotriton and Desmognathus are robust. All are lumgless and breathe through their thin moist skin. All have a nasolabial groove, a small narrow gland lined slit between the nostril and upper lip. Costal grooves are well defined. Most are terrestrial species that lay eggs on land. Others are fully aquatic, partly aquatic, or completely terrestrial.

Lungless salamanders conduct an elaborate courtship. Males rub and prod females, and females may straddle the male's tail while he moves forward and drops a spermatophore for her to retrieve. Males have a mental gland under the chin, and, during breeding season the area surrounding their vent is greatly enlarged. Fertilization is internal. Females often coil about and guard egg clutch durng its development, with hatchlings appearing as miniature replicas of adults.


There are 80 species of Lungless Salamanders in the U.S.

Green Salamander (Aneides aeneus)

Found from extreme southwestern Pennsylvania through the Allegheny and Cumberland mouontains to central Alabama and the Blue Rdige Mountains of North and South Carolina.

Clouded Salamander (Aneides ferreus)

Found from coastal California and Oreon from Mendocino County to the Columbia River and Vancouver Island.

Black Salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus)

Found in extreme southwestern Oregon and northern California.

Sacramento Mountain Salamander (Aneides hardii)

FOund in Sacramento, Capitan, and White mountains, New Mexico.

Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris)

Found in the coastal ranges of California from Humboldt County to Baja California also in the central Sierra Nevada foothills, South Farallon, Santa Catalina, and Los Coronados islands..

Desert Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps aridus)

Found in the Hidden Palm Cnayon, Riverside County, California.

California Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps major)

Found in extreme southwestern Oregon south along the Coast Ranges to southwestern California and also along the base of the Sierra Nevada adjacent to Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley.

Garden Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps aeneus)

Found in Santa Catalina Island and adjacent southern California along the coast into Baja California.

Channel Islands Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps pacificus)

Found in Anacapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel islands California.

Relictual Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps relictus)

Found in the Sierra Nevada, Kern to Mariposa counties, California. Also found in wetern Monterey and north San Luis Obispo counties, Santa Cruz Island and Baja California.

Kern Canyon Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps aeneus)

Found in the south side of the Kern River Canyon, Kern County California.

Tehachapi Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps stebbinsi)

Found in the Paiute and Techachapi mountains, Kern County and Sequoia National Forest, Tulare County, California.

Oregon Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps wrighti)

Found from northcentral Oregon along the Columbia River in Hood River and Multnomah counties south on the western slope of the Cascades into Lane County.

Seepage Salamander (Desmognathus aeneus)

Found from southwestern North Carolina to central Alabama also in west centreal Alabama.

Southern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus auriculatus)

Found in the coastal plain from southeastern Virginia to central Florida, west to eastern Texas.

Ouachita Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus brimleyorum)

Found in the Oauchita Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Arkansas.

Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus)

Found from southern New Brunswick and southeastern Quebec southwest to Louisiana.

Imitator Salamander (Desmognathus imitator)

Restricted to the Great Smokey Mountains, North Carolina/Tennessee border and nearby Balsam Mountain North Carolina.

Shovel-Nosed Salamander (Desmognathus mormoratus)

Found in the White Top Mountains, southwestern Virginia southwest into the Smokies and northeastern Georgia.

Seal Salamander (Desmognathus monticola)

Found from southwestern Pennsylvania southwest in the uplands to central Alabama, and also in southwestern Alabama.

Mountain Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus ochrophaeus)

Found from west of the Hudson River in New York to northeastern Georgia and also in northeastern Alabama.

Black-Bellied Salamander (Desmognathus quadramaaculatus)

Found from southern West Virginia through the mountains to northeastern Georgia with scattered populations in South Carolina and Georgia Piedmont.

Black Mountain Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus welteri)

Found in Big Black Mountain in eastern Kentucky and adjacent Virginia and also in Warren County, Kentucky.

Pygmy Salamander (Desmognathus wrighti)

Sound on the southern Appalachians from southwestern Virginia into southwestern North Carolina.

Ensantina (Ensantina eschscholtzi)

Found from eastern Vancouver Island, southwestern British Columbia, south along the Coast Ranges to Baja Califronia and along the western slopes of the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevadas. It is absent from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Valley.

Two-Lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata)

Found from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, to northern Florida and west to southeastern Ontario , eastern Illinois, and the Mississippi River.

Junaluska Salamander (Eurycea junaluska)

Found in the Cheoah River Valley, Graham County, North Carolina.

Cascade Cavern Salamander (Eurycea latitans)

Found in the Cascade cavern, Kendall County, Texas.

Long-Tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda)

Found from southern New York to the Florida Panhandle, west to Mississippi River and beyond in southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and adjacent Kansas and Oklahoma.

Cave Salamander (Eurycea luciferuga)

Limited to limestone areas in western Virginia and southeastern West virginia south to central Alabama, west to northeastern Oklahoma.

Many-Ribbed Salamander (Eurycea multiplicata)

Found from central Missouri and north central Arkansas into Oklahoma with an isolated population in extreme southeastern Arkansas.

San Marcos Salamander (Eurycea nana)

Found in Hays County, Texas.

Texas Salamander (Eurycea neotenes)

Found in the Edwards Plataeu, west central Texas.

Dwarf Salamander (Eurycea quadridigitata)

Found from the coastal plain North Carolina to Lake Okeechobee, Florida and west to eastern Texas with isolated populations in Arkansas and Missouri.

Texas Blind Salamander (Eurycea rathbuni)


Comal Blind Salamander (Eurycea tridentifera)

Found in the Honey Creek Cave and sinkhole caves on floodplain of the Cibolo Creek, Comal County, and Elm Springs Cave, Bexar County, Texas.

Valdina Farms Salamander (Eurycea troglodytes)

Found in the Valdina Famrs sinkhols in northwestern Medina County, Texas.

Oklahoma Salamander (Eurycea tynerensis)

Found in the drainages of the Neosho and Illinois Rivers, from southwestern Missouri to northeastern Oklahoma.

Tennessee Cave Salamander (Gyrinphilus palleucus)

Found in southeastern and central Tennessee, northern Alabama, and extrme northwestern Georgia.

Spring Salamander ( Gyrinphilus porphyriticus)

Found from southern Quebec and southern Maine to northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.

West Virginia Spring Salamander (Gyrinphilus subterraneus)

Found in General Davis Cave, Greenbriar County, West Virginia.

Georgia Blind Salamander (Haideotriton wallacei)

Found in the limestone sink areas of southwestern Georgia and adjacent Florida.

Four-Toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum)

Discontinuous. Chiefly east of the Mississippi River, Nova Scotia to Wisconsin south to the Gulf, bit absent from the Florida peninsula.

Limestone Salamander (Hydromantes brunus)

Found in Lower Merced Canyon, Mariposa County, California.

Mount Lyell Salamander (Hydromantes platycephalus)

Found in the Sierra Nevadas from Snonora Pass south to Sequoia National Park, California.

Shasta Salamander (Hydromantes shastae)

Found in the vicinity of the Shasta Reservoir headwaters, Shasta County, California.

Red Hills Salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti)

Found in the Red Hills of south central Alabama between the Alabama and Conecuh Rivers.

Caddo Mountain Salamander (Plethodon caddoensis)

Found in the Caddo Mountains, Arkansas.

Red-Backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus)

Found from western Ontario to southern Quebec and Newfoundland, south to North Carolina and southern Indiana.

Zigzag Salamander (Plethodon dorsalis)

Found from central Indiana south to central Alabama and southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and northeastern Oklahoma.

Dunn's Salamander (Plethodon dunni)

Found in extreme southwestern Washington south through western Oregon to extreme northwestern California.

Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus)

Found in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California.

Fourche Mountain Salamander (Plethodon fourchensis)

Found in the Fourche and Irons Fork mountains, Arkansas.

Slimy Salamander (Plethodon glutinosus)

Found from central new York south to Florida and west to the Mississippi River and beyond in southern Missouri, northwestern Arkansas, and eastrern Oklahoma with isolated populations in southern New hampshire, north central Louisiana, eastern and south central Texas.

Valley and Ridge Salamander (Plethodon hoffmani)

Found in the west branch of the Susquehanna River Valley in central Pennsylvania, southwest in the Appalachians to New River, southwestern Virginia.

Appalachian Woodland Salamander (Plethodon jordani)

Found in the southern Appalachians, southwestern Vriginia south through eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina into northeastern Georgia and northwestern South Carolina.

Larch Mountain Salamander (Plethodon larselli)

Found in the Lower Columbia River gorge, Skamania County, Washington and the Multnomah and Hood River counties, Oregon.

Crevice Salamander (Plethodon longicrus)

Found in Henderson and Rutherford counties, North Carolina.

Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus)

Found in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico.

Netting's Salamander (Plethodon nettingi)

Found in the Cheat Mountains, West Virginia and the Peaks of Otter region, Virginia.

Rich Mountain Salamander (Plethodon ouachitae)

Found in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas and Oklahoma.

White-Spotted Salamander (Plethodon punctatus)

Found in the Shenandoah and North Mountains on the Virginia and West Virginia border.

Ravine Salamander (Plethodon richmondi)

Found from western Pennsylvania south to northeastern Tennessee and northwestern North Carolina, west to stouheastern Indiana.

Southern Red-Backed Salamander (Plethodon serratus)

Widely scattered populations in the southeastern United States. Both pahses are common in Alabama and Georgia and the lead-backed is rare elsewhere.

Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon shenandoah)

Found in the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia.

Siskiyou Mountain Salamander (Plethodon stormi)

Found in Siskiyou County, California and adjacent southwestern Oregon.

Van Dyke's Salamander (Plethodon vandykei)

Spotty distribution in the Olympic Mountains, Willapa Hills, and Cascade Mountains, Washingont with isolated populations east an west of the Bitteroot Range between Idaho and Montana.

Western Red-Backed Salamander (Plethodon vehiculum)

Found from southwestern Oregon north to Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Wehrle's Salamander (Plethodon wehrlei)

Found in the Appalachian Plateau, southwestern New York to northwestern North Caorlina.

Weller's Salamander (Plethodon welleri)

Found in the Mt. rogers and Whitetop Mountain, virginia, southwesteward along the Unaka mountain ridges in Tennessee, into Yancy County, North Carolina with an isoalted population on Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina.

Yonahlossee Salamander (Plethodon yonahlossee)

Found in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, French River Valley northeast to southwestern Virginia and North Carolina.

Mud Salamander (Pseudotriton montanus)

Found chiefly in the coastal plain and Piedmont area, southern New JErsey to central Florida, the low elevations west of the Appalachians from southern Ohio to south central Tennessee.

Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber)

Found from southern New York west to southeastern Indiana, southward east of the Mississippi River to the Gulf. Absent from Atlantic coastal plain south of Vriginia and from peninsular Florida.

Many-Lined Salamander (Stereochilus marginatus)

Found in the coastal plain from Virginia to southeastern Georgia.

Grotto Salamander (Typhlotriton spelacus)

Found in the Blacones Escarpment of Edwards Plateau, the in vicinity of San Marcos, Texas.





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